SLC2A4 (Solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter) member 4)

Certainty Style Key
Hover over keys for definitions:
True   Likely   Speculative
Human Uniqueness Compared to "Great Apes": 
Likely Difference
Human Universality: 
Individual Universal (All Individuals Everywhere)
MOCA Domain: 
MOCA Topic Authors: 

Solute carrier family 2, member 4 (SLC2A4) is a major glucose transporter expressed in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. SLC2A4 shows HLS decreased expression in skeletal muscle as well as signs of positive selection. Given the protein’s role in sugar transport it is hypothesized it may play a role in the energy tradeoff between the brain and body required for increased brain to body ratio in humans.

Timing

Timing of appearance of the difference in the Hominin Lineage as a defined date or a lineage separation event. The point in time associated with lineage separation events may change in the future as the scientific community agrees upon better time estimates. Lineage separation events are defined in 2017 as:

  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and old world monkeys was 25,000 - 30,000 thousand (25 - 30 million) years ago
  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and chimpanzees was 6,000 - 8,000 thousand (6 - 8 million) years ago
  • the emergence of the genus Homo was 2,000 thousand (2 million) years ago
  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and neanderthals was 500 thousand years ago
  • the common ancestor of modern humans was 100 - 300 thousand years ago

Definite Appearance (Lineage Separation Event): 
Genetics Topic Attributes
Gene symbols follow the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee standard.
Type of Human-Specific Changes
Accelerated Evolution, Expression Pattern Change

References

  1. A potential role for glucose transporters in the evolution of human brain size., Fedrigo, Olivier, Pfefferle Adam D., Babbitt Courtney C., Haygood Ralph, Wall Christine E., and Wray Gregory A. , Brain Behav Evol, 2011, Volume 78, Issue 4, p.315-26, (2011)