The active grandparent hypothesis: Physical activity and the evolution of extended human healthspans and lifespans.

Bibliographic Collection: 
Publication Type: Journal Article
Authors: Lieberman, Daniel E; Kistner, Timothy M; Richard, Daniel; Lee, I-Min; Baggish, Aaron L
Year of Publication: 2021
Journal: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
Volume: 118
Issue: 50
Date Published: 2021 Dec 14
Publication Language: eng
ISSN: 1091-6490
Keywords: Aging, Biological Evolution, Exercise, Humans, Longevity, Quality of Life

The proximate mechanisms by which physical activity (PA) slows senescence and decreases morbidity and mortality have been extensively documented. However, we lack an ultimate, evolutionary explanation for why lifelong PA, particularly during middle and older age, promotes health. As the growing worldwide epidemic of physical inactivity accelerates the prevalence of noncommunicable diseases among aging populations, integrating evolutionary and biomedical perspectives can foster new insights into how and why lifelong PA helps preserve health and extend lifespans. Building on previous life-history research, we assess the evidence that humans were selected not just to live several decades after they cease reproducing but also to be moderately physically active during those postreproductive years. We next review the longstanding hypothesis that PA promotes health by allocating energy away from potentially harmful overinvestments in fat storage and reproductive tissues and propose the novel hypothesis that PA also stimulates energy allocation toward repair and maintenance processes. We hypothesize that selection in humans for lifelong PA, including during postreproductive years to provision offspring, promoted selection for both energy allocation pathways which synergistically slow senescence and reduce vulnerability to many forms of chronic diseases. As a result, extended human healthspans and lifespans are both a cause and an effect of habitual PA, helping explain why lack of lifelong PA in humans can increase disease risk and reduce longevity.

DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2107621118
Alternate Journal: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A