Caesarean birth and adiposity parameters in 6- to 8-year-old urban Maya children from two cities of Yucatan, Mexico
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze the association between birth mode and fat mass index (FMI?=?fat mass [kg]/height [m]2), and z-score values of waist circumference (WCZ) and sum of triceps and subscapular skinfolds (SumSkfZ) in a sample of 256 6- to 8-year-old urban Maya children from the cities of Merida and Motul in Yucatan, Mexico.
Methods: From September 2011 to January 2014, we measured height, weight, waist circumference and skinfolds in children, and height and weight in their mothers. Body composition was estimated in both generations through bioelectrical impedance analysis. Data on children's birth mode and birth weight were obtained from birth certificates. A pre-validated questionnaire for mothers was used regarding household living conditions. Multiple regression models were used to analyze the association between birth mode and adiposity parameters, adjusting for the effect of place of residence, household crowding index, children's birth weight, and maternal fat mass. Separate regression models were run for boys and girls.
Results: Caesarean-born children comprised 43% of the entire sample. Caesarean section (CS) was found to be associated with higher values of body adiposity in girls, but not in boys. Specifically, our models predicted that girls born by CS had an increased value of 0.817?kg/m2 in FMI and showed higher SDs values for WCZ and SumskfZ (0.29 and 0.32 SD, respectively) than girls who were delivered vaginally.
Discussion: Our results support the hypothesis that CS is associated with increased levels of adiposity in childhood, but only in girls.