Chemical characterization of oligosaccharides in chimpanzee, bonobo, gorilla, orangutan, and siamang milk or colostrum.

Bibliographic Collection: 
MOCA Reference, APE
Publication Type: Journal Article
Authors: Urashima, Tadasu; Odaka, Go; Asakuma, Sadaki; Uemura, Yusuke; Goto, Kohta; Senda, Akitsugu; Saito, Tadao; Fukuda, Kenji; Messer, Michael; Oftedal, Olav T
Year of Publication: 2009
Journal: Glycobiology
Volume: 19
Issue: 5
Pagination: 499-508
Date Published: 05/2009
Publication Language: eng
ISSN: 1460-2423
Keywords: Animals, Colostrum, Female, Gorilla gorilla, Hylobates, Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, Milk, N-Acetylneuraminic Acid, Neuraminic Acids, Oligosaccharides, Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus, Pregnancy, Species Specificity

Neutral and acidic oligosaccharides were isolated from the milk or colostrum of four great ape species (chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), bonobo (Pan paniscus), gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), and orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)) and one lesser ape species (siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus)), and their chemical structures were characterized by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. Oligosaccharides containing the type II unit (Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc) were found exclusively (gorilla and siamang) or predominately (chimpanzee, bonobo, and orangutan) over those containing the type I unit (Gal(beta1-3)GlcNAc). In comparison, type I oligosaccharides predominate over type II oligosaccharides in human milk, whereas nonprimate milk almost always contains only type II oligosaccharides. The milk or colostrum of the great apes contained oligosaccharides bearing both N-glycolylneuraminic acid and N-acetylneuraminic acid, whereas human milk contains only the latter. Great ape milk, like that of humans, contained fucosylated oligosaccharides whereas siamang milk did not. Since these analyses are based on a limited number of individuals, further research on additional samples of great and lesser ape milk is needed to confirm phylogenetic patterns.

DOI: 10.1093/glycob/cwp006
Alternate Journal: Glycobiology
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