Comparative transcriptomics reveals human-specific cortical features.

Bibliographic Collection: 
Publication Type: Journal Article
Authors: Jorstad, Nikolas L; Song, Janet H T; Exposito-Alonso, David; Suresh, Hamsini; Castro-Pacheco, Nathan; Krienen, Fenna M; Yanny, Anna Marie; Close, Jennie; Gelfand, Emily; Long, Brian; Seeman, Stephanie C; Travaglini, Kyle J; Basu, Soumyadeep; Beaudin, Marc; Bertagnolli, Darren; Crow, Megan; Ding, Song-Lin; Eggermont, Jeroen; Glandon, Alexandra; Goldy, Jeff; Kiick, Katelyn; Kroes, Thomas; McMillen, Delissa; Pham, Trangthanh; Rimorin, Christine; Siletti, Kimberly; Somasundaram, Saroja; Tieu, Michael; Torkelson, Amy; Feng, Guoping; Hopkins, William D; Höllt, Thomas; Keene, C Dirk; Linnarsson, Sten; McCarroll, Steven A; Lelieveldt, Boudewijn P; Sherwood, Chet C; Smith, Kimberly; Walsh, Christopher A; Dobin, Alexander; Gillis, Jesse; Lein, Ed S; Hodge, Rebecca D; Bakken, Trygve E
Year of Publication: 2023
Journal: Science
Volume: 382
Issue: 6667
Pagination: eade9516
Date Published: 2023 Oct 13
Publication Language: eng
ISSN: 1095-9203

The cognitive abilities of humans are distinctive among primates, but their molecular and cellular substrates are poorly understood. We used comparative single-nucleus transcriptomics to analyze samples of the middle temporal gyrus (MTG) from adult humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, rhesus macaques, and common marmosets to understand human-specific features of the neocortex. Human, chimpanzee, and gorilla MTG showed highly similar cell-type composition and laminar organization as well as a large shift in proportions of deep-layer intratelencephalic-projecting neurons compared with macaque and marmoset MTG. Microglia, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes had more-divergent expression across species compared with neurons or oligodendrocyte precursor cells, and neuronal expression diverged more rapidly on the human lineage. Only a few hundred genes showed human-specific patterning, suggesting that relatively few cellular and molecular changes distinctively define adult human cortical structure.

DOI: 10.1126/science.ade9516
Alternate Journal: Science