Cooperative activities in young children and chimpanzees.

Bibliographic Collection: 
MOCA Reference, APE
Publication Type: Journal Article
Authors: Warneken, Felix; Chen, Frances; Tomasello, Michael
Year of Publication: 2006
Journal: Child Dev
Volume: 77
Issue: 3
Pagination: 640-63
Date Published: 2006 May-Jun
Publication Language: eng
ISSN: 0009-3920
Keywords: Adult, Animals, Child Behavior, Child Development, Child, Preschool, Communication, Cooperative Behavior, Female, Humans, Infant, Intention, Male, Pan troglodytes, Problem Solving, Species Specificity

Human children 18-24 months of age and 3 young chimpanzees interacted in 4 cooperative activities with a human adult partner. The human children successfully participated in cooperative problem-solving activities and social games, whereas the chimpanzees were uninterested in the social games. As an experimental manipulation, in each task the adult partner stopped participating at a specific point during the activity. All children produced at least one communicative attempt to reengage him, perhaps suggesting that they were trying to reinstate a shared goal. No chimpanzee ever made any communicative attempt to reengage the partner. These results are interpreted as evidence for a uniquely human form of cooperative activity involving shared intentionality that emerges in the second year of life.

DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2006.00895.x
Alternate Journal: Child Dev
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