How laboratory-raised Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) perceive rotated photographs of monkeys: Evidence for an inversion effect in face perception
Five laboratory-raised Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) were presented various types of photographs of Japanese and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) in upright, horizontal, and inverted orientations in a sensory-reinforcement experiment. The ratio of the duration of potential viewing time for the photographs which the subjects controlled to the interval between subject-controlled presentations of them (the D/I score) was used as a measure of preference for the photographs. When inverted photographs were presented, the D/I scores were lower than for upright photographs. The difference in D/I scores between photographs of the two species, which indicated discriminability between them, also diminished when the photographs were inverted. The results obtained suggest an inversion effect in face perception in macaque monkeys.