Human hyoid bones from the middle Pleistocene site of the Sima de los Huesos (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

Bibliographic Collection: 
MOCA Reference, APE
Publication Type: Journal Article
Authors: Martínez, I; Arsuaga, J L; Quam, R; Carretero, J M; Gracia, A; Rodríguez, L
Year of Publication: 2008
Journal: J Hum Evol
Volume: 54
Issue: 1
Pagination: 118-24
Date Published: 2008 Jan
Publication Language: eng
ISSN: 0047-2484
Keywords: Animals, Biological Evolution, Female, Fossils, History, Ancient, Hominidae, Humans, Hyoid Bone, Male, Paleontology, Sex Characteristics, Spain

This study describes and compares two hyoid bones from the middle Pleistocene site of the Sima de los Huesos in the Sierra de Atapuerca (Spain). The Atapuerca SH hyoids are humanlike in both their morphology and dimensions, and they clearly differ from the hyoid bones of chimpanzees and Australopithecus afarensis. Their comparison with the Neandertal specimens Kebara 2 and SDR-034 makes it possible to begin to approach the question of temporal variation and sexual dimorphism in this bone in fossil humans. The results presented here show that the degree of metric and anatomical variation in the fossil sample was similar in magnitude and kind to living humans. Modern hyoid morphology was present by at least 530 kya and appears to represent a shared derived feature of the modern human and Neandertal evolutionary lineages inherited from their last common ancestor.

DOI: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2007.07.006
Alternate Journal: J. Hum. Evol.
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