The myth of cognitive decline: non-linear dynamics of lifelong learning.

Bibliographic Collection: 
Publication Type: Journal Article
Authors: Ramscar, Michael; Hendrix, Peter; Shaoul, Cyrus; Milin, Petar; Baayen, Harald
Year of Publication: 2014
Journal: Top Cogn Sci
Volume: 6
Issue: 1
Pagination: 5-42
Date Published: 2014 Jan
Publication Language: eng
ISSN: 1756-8765
Keywords: Aging, Cognition disorders, Computer Simulation, Human Development, Humans, Learning, Models, Psychological, Neuropsychological Tests, Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychometrics, Psychomotor Performance

As adults age, their performance on many psychometric tests changes systematically, a finding that is widely taken to reveal that cognitive information-processing capacities decline across adulthood. Contrary to this, we suggest that older adults'; changing performance reflects memory search demands, which escalate as experience grows. A series of simulations show how the performance patterns observed across adulthood emerge naturally in learning models as they acquire knowledge. The simulations correctly identify greater variation in the cognitive performance of older adults, and successfully predict that older adults will show greater sensitivity to fine-grained differences in the properties of test stimuli than younger adults. Our results indicate that older adults'; performance on cognitive tests reflects the predictable consequences of learning on information-processing, and not cognitive decline. We consider the implications of this for our scientific and cultural understanding of aging.

DOI: 10.1111/tops.12078
Alternate Journal: Top Cogn Sci