Von Economo neurons in the elephant brain.

Bibliographic Collection: 
MOCA Reference, APE
Publication Type: Journal Article
Authors: Hakeem, Atiya Y; Sherwood, Chet C; Bonar, Christopher J; Butti, Camilla; Hof, Patrick R; Allman, John M
Year of Publication: 2009
Journal: Anat Rec (Hoboken)
Volume: 292
Issue: 2
Pagination: 242-8
Date Published: 2009 Feb
Publication Language: eng
ISSN: 1932-8494
Keywords: Animals, Biological Evolution, Brain, Cetacea, Elephants, Female, Frontal Lobe, Gyrus Cinguli, Hominidae, Humans, Neurons, Phylogeny, Social Behavior, Species Specificity

Von Economo neurons (VENs), previously found in humans, all of the great ape species, and four cetacean species, are also present in African and Indian elephants. The VENs in the elephant are primarily found in similar locations to those in the other species. They are most abundant in the frontoinsular cortex (area FI) and are also present at lower density in the anterior cingulate cortex. Additionally, they are found in a dorsolateral prefrontal area and less abundantly in the region of the frontal pole. The VEN morphology appears to have arisen independently in hominids, cetaceans, and elephants, and may reflect a specialization for the rapid transmission of crucial social information in very large brains.

DOI: 10.1002/ar.20829
Alternate Journal: Anat Rec (Hoboken)