Enterobius Vermicularis Infection

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Human Uniqueness Compared to "Great Apes": 
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Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) typically causes a mild Infection of the lower gastrointestinal tract in humans. . Humans are the only common hosts of E. vermicularis. This pinworm is usually found in children, may also be found in adults and is commonly found in captive chimpanzees. Although Chimpanzees have there own pinworm, E. anthropopitheci, E. vermicularis is commonly found in captive chimpanzees and has also been reported in gorillas. Except perianal itching, pinworm infections are usually mild in people. Fatal infections have been reported in captive chimpanzees, with infiltration of worms into major internal organs. Severe pathogenicity is likely due to the severity of infection and the immunological status of the host as seen in some animals due to captivity. The pathogenicity may also be attributed to the massive re-inoculation that occurs with the intense grooming habits and the development of geophagic and corprophagic behavior of the chimpanzee of some apes when in captivity.


Timing of appearance of the difference in the Hominin Lineage as a defined date or a lineage separation event. The point in time associated with lineage separation events may change in the future as the scientific community agrees upon better time estimates. Lineage separation events are defined in 2017 as:

  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and old world monkeys was 25,000 - 30,000 thousand (25 - 30 million) years ago
  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and chimpanzees was 6,000 - 8,000 thousand (6 - 8 million) years ago
  • the emergence of the genus Homo was 2,000 thousand (2 million) years ago
  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and neanderthals was 500 thousand years ago
  • the common ancestor of modern humans was 100 - 300 thousand years ago

Possible Appearance: 
6,000 thousand years ago
Probable Appearance: 
2,000 thousand years ago
Definite Appearance: 
100 thousand years ago


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