Medicine, in the senses of both practices and of objects or substances, is found in all human cultures. In elementary forms both are also found in non-human primates and more distantly related species, e.g., licking wounds or ingesting particular plants or substances as reactions to particular illnesses. However, all or nearly all human medicine is both more complex and is culturally highly variable. Specialized curers, absent in other species, are very widespread if not universal among humans.
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