Controlled fire use in early humans might have triggered the evolutionary emergence of tuberculosis

Bibliographic Collection: 
Publication Type: Journal Article
Authors: Chisholm, R. H.; Trauer, J. M.; Curnoe, D.; Tanaka, M. M.
Year of Publication: 2016
Journal: PNAS
Volume: 113
Issue: 32
Pagination: 9051 - 9056
Date Published: 08/2016
Publication Language: eng

Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), a wildly successful group of organisms and the leading cause of death resulting from a single bacterial pathogen worldwide. It is generally accepted that MTBC established itself in human populations in Africa and that animal-infecting strains diverged from human strains. However, the precise causal factors of TB emergence remain unknown. Here, we propose that the advent of controlled fire use in early humans created the ideal conditions for the emergence of TB as a transmissible disease. This hypothesis is supported by mathematical modeling together with a synthesis of evidence from epidemiology, evolutionary genetics, and paleoanthropology.

Short Title: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences