Mutations in Hydin impair ciliary motility in mice
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii hydin is a central pair protein required for flagellar motility, and mice with Hydin defects develop lethal hydrocephalus. To determine if defects in Hydin cause hydrocephalus through a mechanism involving cilia, we compared the morphology, ultrastructure, and activity of cilia in wild-type and hydin mutant mice strains. The length and density of cilia in the brains of mutant animals is normal. The ciliary axoneme is normal with respect to the 9 + 2 microtubules, dynein arms, and radial spokes but one of the two central microtubules lacks a specific projection. The hydin mutant cilia are unable to bend normally, ciliary beat frequency is reduced, and the cilia tend to stall. As a result, these cilia are incapable of generating fluid flow. Similar defects are observed for cilia in trachea. We conclude that hydrocephalus in hydin mutants is caused by a central pair defect impairing ciliary motility and fluid transport in the brain.