Choroid Plexus Biondi Bodies

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Human Uniqueness Compared to "Great Apes": 
Likely Difference
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Biondi bodies (the “silver rings of Biondi”) are filamentous, ring-like or arc-like structures in the epithelium of the choroid plexus (the portion of the ventricles of the brain that produce cerebrospinal fluid). Structurally these filamentous rings are associated with lipid droplets, and appear to develop within the epithelial cells themselves (and thus may be agents of cellular destruction) rather than in the extracellular matrix. Biondi bodies are characteristic of the choroidial epithelium of aged humans, but are thought to be absent in other primates. Their absence in non-humans primates, as well as their absence in various senescent mammals (rodents, dogs and cats) and birds, has led to suggestions that they may relate to differences in brain senescence between humans and other animals. However, Biondi-like inclusions have been identified in an aged (43 year old) male chimpanzee.

 

Timing

Timing of appearance of the difference in the Hominin Lineage as a defined date or a lineage separation event. The point in time associated with lineage separation events may change in the future as the scientific community agrees upon better time estimates. Lineage separation events are defined in 2017 as:

  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and old world monkeys was 25,000 - 30,000 thousand (25 - 30 million) years ago
  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and chimpanzees was 6,000 - 8,000 thousand (6 - 8 million) years ago
  • the emergence of the genus Homo was 2,000 thousand (2 million) years ago
  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and neanderthals was 500 thousand years ago
  • the common ancestor of modern humans was 100 - 300 thousand years ago

Possible Appearance: 
2,000 thousand years ago
Definite Appearance: 
100 thousand years ago
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