CLLU1 (Chronic lymphocytic leukemia up-regulated 1)

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Human Uniqueness Compared to "Great Apes": 
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CLLU1, chronic lymphocytic leukemia up-regulated 1, is a de novo human gene originally identified as being uniquely up-regulated in patients with a particularly aggressive form of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Increasing CLLU1 protein levels have been associated with poor clinical outcome and are currently being used as a prognostic indicator for the disease. CLLU1 evolved from ancestrally noncoding DNA, which has been verified by the presence of disabling sequences in chimp, gorilla, gibbon, macaque, and mouse. The function and evolutionary significance of CLLU1 is completely unknown.


Timing of appearance of the difference in the Hominin Lineage as a defined date or a lineage separation event. The point in time associated with lineage separation events may change in the future as the scientific community agrees upon better time estimates. Lineage separation events are defined in 2017 as:

  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and old world monkeys was 25,000 - 30,000 thousand (25 - 30 million) years ago
  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and chimpanzees was 6,000 - 8,000 thousand (6 - 8 million) years ago
  • the emergence of the genus Homo was 2,000 thousand (2 million) years ago
  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and neanderthals was 500 thousand years ago
  • the common ancestor of modern humans was 100 - 300 thousand years ago

Definite Appearance: 
6,000 thousand years ago
Genetics Topic Attributes
Gene symbols follow the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee standard.
Gene Symbol Type of Human-Specific Changes
CLLU1 De Novo Human Gene


  1. Recent de novo origin of human protein-coding genes., Knowles, David G., and McLysaght Aoife , Genome Res, 2009 Oct, Volume 19, Issue 10, p.1752-9, (2009)