Displaced Reference

Certainty Style Key

Certainty styling is being phased out topic by topic.

Hover over keys for definitions:
True   Likely   Speculative
Human Uniqueness Compared to "Great Apes": 
Relative Difference
Human Universality: 
Individual Universal (All Individuals Everywhere)
MOCA Domain: 
MOCA Topic Authors: 

Signed and spoken human languages have the ability to refer to entities and events that are removed in space and/or time from the immediate communicative situation. (1)  Displaced reference has been documented in gesture used as a means of communication when the vocal channel is not available (cf. "Gesture"), particularly in the so-called "home sign" gestural systems that deaf children who are not exposed to sign language use to communicate with hearing family members. (2)  Co-speech gesture (cf. "Gesture"), a non-linguistic human communication system, can at times indirectly accommodate displaced reference. (3)  The only documented naturally occurring form of displaced reference in non-human species is the dance of forager honeybees, which is however limited to one type of referent only: distal food sources. (4)  Border collies have demonstrated the ability to comprehend reference to objects removed from the communicative situation under controlled conditions. (5, 6) Likewise, some language-trained apes have shown evidence of reference to displaced entities (objects, other familiar apes, people, locations) in either comprehension or production. (7)

Related MOCA Topics
Related Topics (hover over title for reason):
Referenced By:
Title Certainty
Arbitrary Reference Likely
Personal Names True
Prevarication

References

  1. Time-space–displaced responses in the orangutan vocal system, Lameira, Adriano R., and Call Josep , Science Advances, 2018/11/01, Volume 4, Issue 11, (2018)
  2. Border collie comprehends object names as verbal referents, Pilley, John W., and Reid Alliston K. , Behavioural Processes, Volume 86, Issue 2, p.184 - 195, (2011)
  3. Word learning in a domestic dog: evidence for "fast mapping"., Kaminski, Juliane, Call Josep, and Fischer Julia , Science, 2004 Jun 11, Volume 304, Issue 5677, p.1682-3, (2004)
  4. Language Comprehension in Ape and Child, Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S., Murphy J., Sevcik R. A., Brakke K. E., Williams S., Rumbaugh D. M., and Bates E. , Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Volume 58, p.i-252, (1993)
  5. Gestural communication in deaf children: the effects and noneffects of parental input on early language development., Goldin-Meadow, S, and Mylander C , Monogr Soc Res Child Dev, 1984, Volume 49, Issue 3-4, p.1-151, (1984)
  6. The Origin of Speech, Hockett, C. , Scientific American, Volume 203, Issue 3, p.88-96, (1960)