MRC1 (Mannose receptor, C type 1)

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Human Uniqueness Compared to "Great Apes": 
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Mannose Receptor, C type 1 (MRC1) is a membrane receptor that mediates the endocytosis of glycoproteins by macrophages. MRC1 binds mannose structures on the surface of viruses, bacteria, and fungi to be neutralized by phagocytosis. Changes in MCR1 have been associated with multiple diseases including the development of leprosy, sarcoidosis, Alzheimer’s disease, and asthma. Human has more copies of MRC1 than any other primate which could have had important implications for the multiple diseases that MRC1 may be involved in.


Timing of appearance of the difference in the Hominin Lineage as a defined date or a lineage separation event. The point in time associated with lineage separation events may change in the future as the scientific community agrees upon better time estimates. Lineage separation events are defined in 2017 as:

  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and old world monkeys was 25,000 - 30,000 thousand (25 - 30 million) years ago
  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and chimpanzees was 6,000 - 8,000 thousand (6 - 8 million) years ago
  • the emergence of the genus Homo was 2,000 thousand (2 million) years ago
  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and neanderthals was 500 thousand years ago
  • the common ancestor of modern humans was 100 - 300 thousand years ago

Definite Appearance: 
6,000 thousand years ago
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Genetics Topic Attributes
Gene symbols follow the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee standard.
Gene Symbol Type of Human-Specific Changes
MRC1 Copy Number Changes


  1. Leprosy susceptibility: genetic variations regulate innate and adaptive immunity, and disease outcome., Cardoso, C. C., Pereira A. C., C. Marques de Sales, and Moraes M. O. , Future Microbiol, 05/2011, Volume 6, Issue 5, p.533-49, (2011)
  2. Detecting gene duplications in the human lineage., Itan, Yuval, Bryson Kevin, and Thomas Mark G. , Ann Hum Genet, 2010 Nov, Volume 74, Issue 6, p.555-65, (2010)
  3. Genetic variants in mannose receptor gene (MRC1) confer susceptibility to increased risk of sarcoidosis., Hattori, T., Konno S., Takahashi A., Isada A., Shimizu K., Shimizu K., Taniguchi N., Gao P., Yamaguchi E., Hizawa N., et al. , BMC Med Genet, 10/2010, Volume 11, p.151, (2010)
  4. Genetic variants in the mannose receptor gene (MRC1) are associated with asthma in two independent populations., Hattori, Takeshi, Konno Satoshi, Hizawa Nobuyuki, Isada Akira, Takahashi Ayumu, Shimizu Kaoruko, Shimizu Kenichi, Gao Peisong, Beaty Terri H., Barnes Kathleen C., et al. , Immunogenetics, 12/2009, Volume 61, Issue 11-12, p.731-8, (2009)
  5. Expression profiles for macrophage alternative activation genes in AD and in mouse models of AD., Colton, Carol A., Mott Ryan T., Sharpe Hayley, Xu Qing, Van Nostrand William E., and Vitek Michael P. , J Neuroinflammation, 09/2006, Volume 3, p.27, (2006)