PDYN (prodynorphin)

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PDYN, or prodynorphin, is an endogenous opioid precursor.  This molecule is considered to have critical roles in regulating perception, behavior, and memory.  Promoter region of this gene was shown to be under balancing selection in human populations.  Five polymorphisms within the 5' flanking region that affect transcript abundance were found.

Genetics Topic Attributes
Gene symbols follow the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee standard.
Gene Symbol Type of Human-Specific Changes
PDYN Polymorphism


  1. Multiple Functional Variants in cis Modulate PDYN Expression., Babbitt, C. C., Silverman J. S., Haygood R., Reininga J. M., Rockman M. V., and Wray G. A. , Mol Biol Evol, 02/2010, Volume 27, Issue 2, p.465-79, (2010)
  2. Ancient and recent positive selection transformed opioid cis-regulation in humans., Rockman, Matthew V., Hahn Matthew W., Soranzo Nicole, Zimprich Fritz, Goldstein David B., and Wray Gregory A. , PLoS Biol, 12/2005, Volume 3, Issue 12, p.e387, (2005)