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PDYN, or prodynorphin, is an endogenous opioid precursor. This molecule is considered to have critical roles in regulating perception, behavior, and memory. Promoter region of this gene was shown to be under balancing selection in human populations. Five polymorphisms within the 5' flanking region that affect transcript abundance were found.
Multiple Functional Variants in cis Modulate PDYN Expression., , Mol Biol Evol, 02/2010, Volume 27, Issue 2, p.465-79, (2010)
Ancient and recent positive selection transformed opioid cis-regulation in humans., , PLoS Biol, 12/2005, Volume 3, Issue 12, p.e387, (2005)