PTPN20A (Protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 20A)

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Human Uniqueness Compared to "Great Apes": 
Likely Difference
MOCA Domain: 
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Protein tyrosine phosphatase, non-receptor type 20A (PTPN20A) is a widely expressed phosphatase that is localized at sites of actin polymerization, although its role is as of yet unknown. PTPN20A has 1-2 more copies in the human genome than in any other primate. The role of these extra copies is unknown.


Timing of appearance of the difference in the Hominin Lineage as a defined date or a lineage separation event. The point in time associated with lineage separation events may change in the future as the scientific community agrees upon better time estimates. Lineage separation events are defined in 2017 as:

  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and old world monkeys was 25,000 - 30,000 thousand (25 - 30 million) years ago
  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and chimpanzees was 6,000 - 8,000 thousand (6 - 8 million) years ago
  • the emergence of the genus Homo was 2,000 thousand (2 million) years ago
  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and neanderthals was 500 thousand years ago
  • the common ancestor of modern humans was 100 - 300 thousand years ago

Probable Appearance: 
2,000 thousand years ago
Definite Appearance: 
6,000 thousand years ago
Genetics Topic Attributes
Gene symbols follow the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee standard.
Gene Symbol Type of Human-Specific Changes
PTPN20A Copy Number Changes


  1. Diversity of human copy number variation and multicopy genes., Sudmant, Peter H., Kitzman Jacob O., Antonacci Francesca, Alkan Can, Malig Maika, Tsalenko Anya, Sampas Nick, Bruhn Laurakay, Shendure Jay, and Eichler Evan E. , Science, 10/2010, Volume 330, Issue 6004, p.641-6, (2010)
  2. Protein tyrosine phosphatase hPTPN20a is targeted to sites of actin polymerization., Fodero-Tavoletti, Michelle T., Hardy Matthew P., Cornell Brent, Katsis Frosa, Sadek Christine M., Mitchell Christina A., Kemp Bruce E., and Tiganis Tony , Biochem J, 07/2005, Volume 389, Issue Pt 2, p.343-54, (2005)