RGS6 (Regulator of G-protein signaling 6)

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Human Uniqueness Compared to "Great Apes": 
Likely Difference
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Regulator of G-protein signaling 6 (RGS6) is a negative regulator of G-protein signaling in multiple pathways important to cardiac and neuronal function and cancer susceptibility. An L1 element inserted into the 5’ upstream promoter of RGS6 resulting in a change in the expression in the human lineage. The significance of this change is not understood.


Timing of appearance of the difference in the Hominin Lineage as a defined date or a lineage separation event. The point in time associated with lineage separation events may change in the future as the scientific community agrees upon better time estimates. Lineage separation events are defined in 2017 as:

  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and old world monkeys was 25,000 - 30,000 thousand (25 - 30 million) years ago
  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and chimpanzees was 6,000 - 8,000 thousand (6 - 8 million) years ago
  • the emergence of the genus Homo was 2,000 thousand (2 million) years ago
  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and neanderthals was 500 thousand years ago
  • the common ancestor of modern humans was 100 - 300 thousand years ago

Definite Appearance: 
6,000 thousand years ago
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Genetics Topic Attributes
Gene symbols follow the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee standard.
Gene Symbol Type of Human-Specific Changes
RGS6 Expression Pattern Change


  1. Identification of human-specific transcript variants induced by DNA insertions in the human genome., Kim, Dong Seon, and Hahn Yoonsoo , Bioinformatics, 2011 Jan 1, Volume 27, Issue 1, p.14-21, (2011)
  2. RGS6, a modulator of parasympathetic activation in heart., Yang, Jianqi, Huang Jie, Maity Biswanath, Gao Zhan, Lorca Ramón A., Gudmundsson Hjalti, Li Jingdong, Stewart Adele, Swaminathan Paari Dominic, Ibeawuchi Stella-Rita, et al. , Circ Res, 11/2010, Volume 107, Issue 11, p.1345-9, (2010)
  3. The R7 RGS protein family: multi-subunit regulators of neuronal G protein signaling., Anderson, Garret R., Posokhova Ekaterina, and Martemyanov Kirill A. , Cell Biochem Biophys, Volume 54, Issue 1-3, p.33-46, (2009)
  4. A functional polymorphism in RGS6 modulates the risk of bladder cancer., Berman, David M., Wang Yunfei, Liu Zhengyu, Dong Qiong, Burke Lorri-Anne, Liotta Lance A., Fisher Rory, and Wu Xifeng , Cancer Res, 09/2004, Volume 64, Issue 18, p.6820-6, (2004)