Timing of Decidual Changes in Endometrium

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Decidualization occurs during pregnancy in mammalian species with invasive implantation of the blastocyst. In humans, unlike other species, the process of decidualization is initiated in the second half of the menstrual cycle even in the absence of pregnancy. One of the most obvious features of decudualization is the transformation of stromal cells in the endometrium from a proliferative to a secretory phenotype. The main secretory products include prolactin (PRL) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 (GFBP-1). Decidualization begins in the vicinity of the spiral arteries of the endometrium as early as day 23 of the menstrual cycle, triggered by the rise in cAMP and progesterone. Spontaneous decidualization, or decidualization in the absence of pregnancy, has also been reported in the chimpanzee (Grahm, 1981).

Decidualization during pregnancy is very extensive in humans and affects all regions of the uterus.

 

 

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Volume of Menstrual Blood Loss Speculative

References

  1. Decidualization of the human endometrium: mechanisms, functions, and clinical perspectives., Gellersen, Birgit, Brosens Ivo A., and Brosens Jan J. , Semin Reprod Med, 2007 Nov, Volume 25, Issue 6, p.445-53, (2007)
  2. Uteroplacental blood flow. The story of decidualization, menstruation, and trophoblast invasion., Kliman, H J. , Am J Pathol, 2000 Dec, Volume 157, Issue 6, p.1759-68, (2000)
  3. Reproductive biology of the great apes: Comparative and biomedical perspectives, Dunbar, R I. , Behav Processes, 1983 Mar, Volume 8, Issue 1, p.102-4, (1983)