ZNF322 (Zinc finger protein 322)

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Human Uniqueness Compared to "Great Apes": 
Likely Difference
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Zink Finger protein 322B (ZNF322B) is a transcriptional activator that may act as a positive regulator of transcription mediated by the MAPK signaling pathway. ZNF322B has 1-3 more copies in the human genome than in any other primate, although the significance of these copies is unknown.


Timing of appearance of the difference in the Hominin Lineage as a defined date or a lineage separation event. The point in time associated with lineage separation events may change in the future as the scientific community agrees upon better time estimates. Lineage separation events are defined in 2017 as:

  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and old world monkeys was 25,000 - 30,000 thousand (25 - 30 million) years ago
  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and chimpanzees was 6,000 - 8,000 thousand (6 - 8 million) years ago
  • the emergence of the genus Homo was 2,000 thousand (2 million) years ago
  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and neanderthals was 500 thousand years ago
  • the common ancestor of modern humans was 100 - 300 thousand years ago

Probable Appearance: 
2,000 thousand years ago
Definite Appearance: 
6,000 thousand years ago
Related MOCA Topics
Referenced By:
Topic Certainty
Kruppel-type Zinc Finger Family True
Genetics Topic Attributes
Gene symbols follow the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee standard.
Gene Symbol Type of Human-Specific Changes
ZNF322B Copy Number Changes


  1. Detecting gene duplications in the human lineage., Itan, Yuval, Bryson Kevin, and Thomas Mark G. , Ann Hum Genet, 2010 Nov, Volume 74, Issue 6, p.555-65, (2010)
  2. Diversity of human copy number variation and multicopy genes., Sudmant, Peter H., Kitzman Jacob O., Antonacci Francesca, Alkan Can, Malig Maika, Tsalenko Anya, Sampas Nick, Bruhn Laurakay, Shendure Jay, and Eichler Evan E. , Science, 10/2010, Volume 330, Issue 6004, p.641-6, (2010)
  3. ZNF322, a novel human C2H2 Kruppel-like zinc-finger protein, regulates transcriptional activation in MAPK signaling pathways., Li, Yongqing, Wang Yuequn, Zhang Caibo, Yuan Wuzhou, Wang Jun, Zhu Chuanbing, Chen Lei, Huang Wen, Zeng Weiqi, Wu Xiushan, et al. , Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 2004 Dec 24, Volume 325, Issue 4, p.1383-92, (2004)