Ancient human microbiomes.

Bibliographic Collection: 
Publication Type: Journal Article
Authors: Warinner, Christina; Speller, Camilla; Collins, Matthew J; Lewis, Cecil M
Year of Publication: 2015
Journal: J Hum Evol
Volume: 79
Pagination: 125-36
Date Published: 2015 Feb
Publication Language: eng
ISSN: 1095-8606
Keywords: Dental Calculus, Diet, Feces, Health, High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing, History, Ancient, Humans, Metagenomics, Microbiota, Paleontology

Very recently, we discovered a vast new microbial self: the human microbiome. Our native microbiota interface with our biology and culture to influence our health, behavior, and quality of life, and yet we know very little about their origin, evolution, or ecology. With the advent of industrialization, globalization, and modern sanitation, it is intuitive that we have changed our relationship with microbes, but we have little information about the ancestral state of our microbiome, and we therefore lack a foundation for characterizing this change. High-throughput sequencing has opened up new opportunities in the field of paleomicrobiology, allowing us to investigate the evolution of the complex microbial ecologies that inhabit our bodies. By focusing on recent coprolite and dental calculus research, we explore how emerging research on ancient human microbiomes is changing the way we think about ancient disease and how archaeological studies can contribute to a medical understanding of health and nutrition today.

DOI: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2014.10.016
Alternate Journal: J. Hum. Evol.