Rapid evolution of the cerebellum in humans and other great apes.

Bibliographic Collection: 
Publication Type: Journal Article
Authors: Barton, Robert A; Venditti, Chris
Year of Publication: 2014
Journal: Curr Biol
Volume: 24
Issue: 20
Pagination: 2440-4
Date Published: 2014 Oct 20
Publication Language: eng
ISSN: 1879-0445
Keywords: Animals, Cerebellum, Hominidae, Humans, Neocortex, Phylogeny, Time Factors

Humans' unique cognitive abilities are usually attributed to a greatly expanded neocortex, which has been described as "the crowning achievement of evolution and the biological substrate of human mental prowess". The human cerebellum, however, contains four times more neurons than the neocortex and is attracting increasing attention for its wide range of cognitive functions. Using a method for detecting evolutionary rate changes along the branches of phylogenetic trees, we show that the cerebellum underwent rapid size increase throughout the evolution of apes, including humans, expanding significantly faster than predicted by the change in neocortex size. As a result, humans and other apes deviated significantly from the general evolutionary trend for neocortex and cerebellum to change in tandem, having significantly larger cerebella relative to neocortex size than other anthropoid primates. These results suggest that cerebellar specialization was a far more important component of human brain evolution than hitherto recognized and that technical intelligence was likely to have been at least as important as social intelligence in human cognitive evolution. Given the role of the cerebellum in sensory-motor control and in learning complex action sequences, cerebellar specialization is likely to have underpinned the evolution of humans' advanced technological capacities, which in turn may have been a preadaptation for language.

DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2014.08.056
Alternate Journal: Curr. Biol.
Related MOCA Topics: