Teratological and toxicological studies of alkaloidal and phenolic compounds from Solanum Tuberosum
A comparative study of acute and chronic ip administration was made in pregnant and nonpregnant (female) rats of alkaloidal (α-chaconine, α-solanine total glycoalkaloidal extract (TGA-extract)) and phenolic compounds (chlorogenic and caffeic acid) from Solanum Tuberosum L. The acute LD50 and 95% confidence limits for α-chaconine, α-solanine, and the TGA-extract were 84 (65.6–107.5), 67 (52.3–85.7), and 60 mg/kg (35.7–100.8). There was no significant difference in their potency at the 95% confidence limit. Chronic adminstration of α-chaconine, α-solanine, and the TGA-extract to nonpregnant rats for 2 days (40 mg/kg/day) and 8 days (20 mg/kg/day) resulted in 40 and 42% mortality, respectively. Eight daily injections of α-chaconine (5–20 mg/kg) on Days 5–12 or 2 (40 mg/kg) on Days 5 and 6 to pregnant rats resulted in maternal (40–66%) and fetal death (15–100%), whereas α-solanine and the TGA-extract administered similarly were lethal only to the fetus (17–86%). Eight daily injections of chlorogenic (5–500 mg/kg) and caffeic acid (40–187.5 mg/kg) on Days 5–12 of gestation did not cause maternal or fetal lethality. None of the compounds tested produced neural tube defects, but a few 21-day-old fetuses had rib abnormalities.