ARHGEF5 (Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 5)

Certainty Style Key
Hover over keys for definitions:
True   Likely   Speculative
Human Uniqueness Compared to "Great Apes": 
Likely Difference
MOCA Domain: 
MOCA Topic Authors: 

Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 5 (Arhgef5) is crucial for podosome formation, which are membrane protrusions that play a crucial role in cell adhesion and migration and extracellular matrix remodeling. There are 2-6 more copies in the human genome of Arhgef5 than in any other primate. The significance of these copies in human is unknown.

Timing

Timing of appearance of the difference in the Hominin Lineage as a defined date or a lineage separation event. The point in time associated with lineage separation events may change in the future as the scientific community agrees upon better time estimates. Lineage separation events are defined in 2017 as:

  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and old world monkeys was 25,000 - 30,000 thousand (25 - 30 million) years ago
  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and chimpanzees was 6,000 - 8,000 thousand (6 - 8 million) years ago
  • the emergence of the genus Homo was 2,000 thousand (2 million) years ago
  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and neanderthals was 500 thousand years ago
  • the common ancestor of modern humans was 100 - 300 thousand years ago

Probable Appearance: 
2,000 thousand years ago
Definite Appearance: 
6,000 thousand years ago
Genetics Topic Attributes
Gene symbols follow the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee standard.
Gene Symbol Type of Human-Specific Changes
ARHGEF5 Copy Number Changes

References

  1. The guanine nucleotide exchange factor Arhgef5 plays crucial roles in Src-induced podosome formation., Kuroiwa, Miho, Oneyama Chitose, Nada Shigeyuki, and Okada Masato , J Cell Sci, 2011 May 15, Volume 124, Issue Pt 10, p.1726-38, (2011)
  2. Diversity of human copy number variation and multicopy genes., Sudmant, Peter H., Kitzman Jacob O., Antonacci Francesca, Alkan Can, Malig Maika, Tsalenko Anya, Sampas Nick, Bruhn Laurakay, Shendure Jay, and Eichler Evan E. , Science, 10/2010, Volume 330, Issue 6004, p.641-6, (2010)
  3. Lineage-specific gene duplication and loss in human and great ape evolution., Fortna, A., Kim Y., MacLaren E., Marshall K., Hahn G., Meltesen L., Brenton M., Hink R., Burgers S., Hernandez-Boussard T., et al. , PLoS Biol, 07/2004, Volume 2, Issue 7, p.E207, (2004)