Chromatin-Stained Banding Patterns
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Chromosome banding employs multiple techniques such as Giemsa (G), reverse (R), centromere (C), and quinacrine (Q) banding to dye chromosomes during mitosis. Humans have unique constitutive heterochromatin (C-band) patterns, with novel C bands on the long arm of chromosome Y and in the pericentric regions of chromosomes 1, 9 and 16. Smaller C bands shared with non-human primates are found at the centromere of each chromosome and on the p arms of chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21 and 22.
Constitutive heterochromatin expansion