Chromatin-Stained Banding Patterns
Chromosome banding employs multiple techniques such as Giemsa (G), reverse (R), centromere (C), and quinacrine (Q) banding to dye chromosomes during mitosis. Humans have unique constitutive heterochromatin (C-band) patterns, with novel C bands on the long arm of chromosome Y and in the pericentric regions of chromosomes 1, 9 and 16. Smaller C bands shared with non-human primates are found at the centromere of each chromosome and on the p arms of chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21 and 22.
Constitutive heterochromatin expansion