E2F6 (E2F transcription factor 6)

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Human Uniqueness Compared to "Great Apes": 
Likely Difference
MOCA Domain: 
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E2F transcription factor 6 (E2F6) is an atypical member of the E2F family of transcription factors in that it lacks the typical tumor suppressor protein domain that is present in this family and instead has a modular suppression domain. E2F6 acts as a transcriptional repressor of other members of the E2F family and plays a critical role in the regulation of apoptosis. Array comparative genomic hybridization studies have shown E2F6 at higher copy number in the human genome than in any other primate, however, the significance of this increased copy number is not understood.


Timing of appearance of the difference in the Hominin Lineage as a defined date or a lineage separation event. The point in time associated with lineage separation events may change in the future as the scientific community agrees upon better time estimates. Lineage separation events are defined in 2017 as:

  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and old world monkeys was 25,000 - 30,000 thousand (25 - 30 million) years ago
  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and chimpanzees was 6,000 - 8,000 thousand (6 - 8 million) years ago
  • the emergence of the genus Homo was 2,000 thousand (2 million) years ago
  • the Last Common Ancestor (LCA) of humans and neanderthals was 500 thousand years ago
  • the common ancestor of modern humans was 100 - 300 thousand years ago

Definite Appearance: 
6,000 thousand years ago
Genetics Topic Attributes
Gene symbols follow the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee standard.
Gene Symbol Type of Human-Specific Changes
E2F6 Copy Number Changes


  1. Identification of human specific gene duplications relative to other primates by array CGH and quantitative PCR., Armengol, Gemma, Knuutila Sakari, Lozano Juan-José, Madrigal Irene, and Caballín María-Rosa , Genomics, 2010 Apr, Volume 95, Issue 4, p.203-9, (2010)
  2. Activating E2Fs mediate transcriptional regulation of human E2F6 repressor., Lyons, Tarrah E., Salih Maysoon, and Tuana Balwant S. , Am J Physiol Cell Physiol, 2006 Jan, Volume 290, Issue 1, p.C189-99, (2006)
  3. Lineage-specific gene duplication and loss in human and great ape evolution., Fortna, A., Kim Y., MacLaren E., Marshall K., Hahn G., Meltesen L., Brenton M., Hink R., Burgers S., Hernandez-Boussard T., et al. , PLoS Biol, 07/2004, Volume 2, Issue 7, p.E207, (2004)