Invasive Trophoblast Implantation and Placentation

Certainty Style Key

Certainty styling is being phased out topic by topic.

Hover over keys for definitions:
True   Likely   Speculative
Human Uniqueness Compared to "Great Apes": 
Speculative Difference
Human Universality: 
Individual Universal (All Individuals Everywhere)
MOCA Topic Authors: 

The Great ape route and depth of trophoblast invasion is unique among primates. In lower primates such as Old World monkeys and Gibbons, the cytotrophoblast invades via the endovascular route and transforms the endometrial segments of the arteries. In gorilla, chimpanzee and human, there is additional invasion via the interstitial route as well as spiral artery transformation through the inner third of the myometrium. This unique placentation and associated failures may be the root cause of several pregnancy and delivery related disorders such as recurrent miscarriage, fetal growth restriction, preeclampsia, preterm birth, and postpartum hemorrhage. Given the numerous changes that had to occur at the genetic, cellular, and anatomic levels for this unique trophoblast implantation to evolve, and the fact that there are human specific changes in pathways known to play a role in Great ape trophoblast invasion (e.g. KIRs, HLAs, and Siglecs), it is likely that there are human specific changes within the process.

Related MOCA Topics
Related Topics (hover over title for reason):
Referenced By:


  1. The role of invasive trophoblast in implantation and placentation of primates, Carter, Anthony M., Enders Allen C., and Pijnenborg Robert , Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 01/2015, Volume 370, Issue 1663, (2015)
  2. Framing postpartum hemorrhage as a consequence of human placental biology: an evolutionary and comparative perspective., Abrams, Elizabeth T., and Rutherford Julienne N. , Am Anthropol, Volume 113, Issue 3, p.417-30, (2011)
  3. Glycodelin-A protein interacts with Siglec-6 protein to suppress trophoblast invasiveness by down-regulating extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/c-Jun signaling pathway., Lam, Kevin K. W., Chiu Philip C. N., Lee Cheuk-Lun, Pang Ronald T. K., Leung Carmen O. N., Koistinen Hannu, Seppala Markku, Ho Pak-Chung, and Yeung William S. B. , J Biol Chem, 10/2011, Volume 286, Issue 43, p.37118-27, (2011)
  4. Maternal activating KIRs protect against human reproductive failure mediated by fetal HLA-C2., Hiby, Susan E., Apps Richard, Sharkey Andrew M., Farrell Lydia E., Gardner Lucy, Mulder Arend, Claas Frans H., Walker James J., Redman Christopher W., Redman Christopher C., et al. , J Clin Invest, 11/2010, Volume 120, Issue 11, p.4102-10, (2010)
  5. Latest advances in understanding preeclampsia, Redman, C. W., and Sargent I. L. , Science, 06/2005, Volume 308, Issue 5728, p.1592-4, (2005)