Subsistence strategies in traditional societies distinguish gut microbiomes.

Bibliographic Collection: 
Publication Type: Journal Article
Authors: Obregon-Tito, Alexandra J; Tito, Raul Y; Metcalf, Jessica; Sankaranarayanan, Krithivasan; Clemente, Jose C; Ursell, Luke K; Zech Xu, Zhenjiang; Van Treuren, Will; Knight, Rob; Gaffney, Patrick M; Spicer, Paul; Lawson, Paul; Marin-Reyes, Luis; Trujillo-Villarroel, Omar; Foster, Morris; Guija-Poma, Emilio; Troncoso-Corzo, Luzmila; Warinner, Christina; Ozga, Andrew T; Lewis, Cecil M
Year of Publication: 2015
Journal: Nat Commun
Volume: 6
Pagination: 6505
Date Published: 2015
Publication Language: eng
ISSN: 2041-1723
Keywords: Actinobacteria, Adolescent, Adult, Agriculture, Bacteroidetes, Biodiversity, Child, Child, Preschool, Classification, Diet, Diet, Paleolithic, Female, Firmicutes, Gastrointestinal Microbiome, High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing, Humans, Industrial Development, Infant, Male, Metagenome, Middle Aged, Oklahoma, Peru, RNA, Ribosomal, 16S, Treponema, Young Adult

Recent studies suggest that gut microbiomes of urban-industrialized societies are different from those of traditional peoples. Here we examine the relationship between lifeways and gut microbiota through taxonomic and functional potential characterization of faecal samples from hunter-gatherer and traditional agriculturalist communities in Peru and an urban-industrialized community from the US. We find that in addition to taxonomic and metabolic differences between urban and traditional lifestyles, hunter-gatherers form a distinct sub-group among traditional peoples. As observed in previous studies, we find that Treponema are characteristic of traditional gut microbiomes. Moreover, through genome reconstruction (2.2-2.5 MB, coverage depth × 26-513) and functional potential characterization, we discover these Treponema are diverse, fall outside of pathogenic clades and are similar to Treponema succinifaciens, a known carbohydrate metabolizer in swine. Gut Treponema are found in non-human primates and all traditional peoples studied to date, suggesting they are symbionts lost in urban-industrialized societies.

DOI: 10.1038/ncomms7505
Alternate Journal: Nat Commun
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