CARTA Glossary

Displaying 201 - 281 of 281 defined words
Word Definition Related Vocabulary
Omnivore

An organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet of plant, animal, and fungal origin.

Optimism Bias

An almost universally human cognitive bias that seems to cause individuals to believe that they are at less risk of experiencing a negative event and more likely to experience a positive outcome compared to other people.

Organoid Cell/tissue culture in vitro that aims to mimic organ structure and function.
Outer Radial Glia Found in the outer subventricular zone of the neocortex, outer radial glia preferentially express genes related to extracellular matrix formation, migration, and stemness.
Outer Subventricular Zone A uniquely structured germinal zone that generates the expanded primate supragranular layers.
Pair bonding

Forming a close relationship with another individual through courtship and sexual activity.

Paleolithic

A broad prehistoric period during which stone was used to make tools and weapons and is synonymous with Stone Age. It is divided into Lower Paleolithic, Middle Paleolithic, and Upper Paleolithic. ~3.4 mya - 10 kya

Pathogen

A bacterium, virus, or other microorganism that can cause disease.

Pathophysiology

Disordered physiological processes associated with disease or injury.

PCR

Polymerase chain reaction. A method of copying a specified locus.

Perciption

The ability to see, hear, or become aware of something through the senses.

Phenotype

Observable traits of an organism (result from interactions between genes and environment).

Phylogeny

Historical relationships of species or loci.

Plasticity

The adaptability of an organism to changes in its environment or differences between its various habitats.

Pneumococcus

A bacterium that infects the lungs and sometimes the blood stream.

Polygenic

Relating to or determined by two or more genes.

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

A method of copying a specified locus.

Polymorphism

An allelic difference observed in more than 1% of the population studied.

POM121 A gene that encodes for transmembrane nucleoporin, a protein that localizes to the inner nuclear membrane and forms a core component of the nuclear pore complex, which mediates transport to and from the nucleus.
Population

A defined group of similar individuals among whom interbreeding occurs.

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Neuroimaging

A functional imaging technique used to observe metabolic process in the body.

Post-translation Modifications

Alter mature protein.

Posterior Parietal Cortex

The portion of the parietal neocortex that plays an important role in planned movements, spatial movements, spatial reasoning, and attention.

Prader-Willi Syndrome

A genetic disorder usually caused by deletion of part of chromosome 15 inherited from the father, causing imbalance in sex-specific imprinting. Results in behavioral problems, intellectual disability, and short stature.

Preeclampsia

A pregnancy associated disorder characterized by high blood pressure and large amounts of protein in urine, typically accelerating during the third trimester.

Prepared Core (Levallois Technique)

A method of creating stone tools by first striking flakes off the stone, or core, along the edges to create the prepared core and then striking the prepared core in such a way that the intended tool is flaked off with all of its edges pre-sharpened.

Primary Somatosensory Cortex

A region of the Neocortex that controls tactile representation from the parts of the body.

Primates

A group of mammals that include humans, apes, monkeys, and prosimians.

Prodigy

A person, especially a young one, endowed with exceptional qualities or abilities.

Promotor

Region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene.

Prosimian

A group of primates that includes all living and extinct galagos, lemurs, lorises, and tarsiers. They are considered to have characteristics that are more “primitive” (ancestral) than those of monkeys, apes, and humans.

Psychological Evolutionary Barrier

The mental equivalent of a physiological evolutionary barrier (such as the difficulty of evolving from an aquatic existence to living on land). A hypothetical concept.

Pyramidal Neurons

A type of multipolar neuron found in areas of the brain including the cerebral cortex, the hippocampus, and the amygdala. Pyramidal neurons are the primary excitation units of the mammalian prefrontal cortex and the corticospinal tract.

Reading-Frame A way of dividing the sequence of nucleotides in a nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) molecule into a set of consecutive, non-overlapping triplets called codons.
Reading-Frame Shift A genetic mutation caused by indels (insertions or deletions) of a number of nucleotides in a DNA sequence that is not divisible by three.
Reality Denial

A subconscious defense mechanism characterized by refusal to acknowledge (or rationalization of) unwanted or unpleasant facts, realities, thoughts, or feelings. Related Term: “Denialism.”

Recombination

Exchanges between chromosomes that causes independent inheritance of alleles.

REM sleep

Rapid eye movement sleep, a phase of mammalian sleep characterized by random movement of eyes, low muscle tone, and vivid dreams.

Reproductive Debut

Age at which an individual initiates their reproductive career, influences lifetime reproductive success.

RNA Binding Proteins (RBP)

Proteins that bind RNA

Savanna-Woodland Mosaic

A transitory ecotone between the tropical moist broadleaf forests of Equatorial Africa and the drier savannas and open woodlands to the north and south of the forest belt. The forest-savanna mosaic consists of drier forests, often gallery forest, interspersed with savannas and open grasslands.

Savant

A person affected with a mental disability who exhibits exceptional skill or brilliance in some limited field.

Savant Syndrome

is a loose term that refers to people who have a combination of significant cognitive difficulties, often stemming from autism, and profound skills.

Scavengers

Organisms that search for and feed on carrion, dead plant material, or refuse.

Selection

Allele frequency change over time caused by the different replication rate of specific alleles.

Self-Awareness

Conscious knowledge of one’s own character, feelings, motives, and desires.

Sequence

The linear order of the building blocks, which encodes individual form and function.

Sequencing

Reading the order of nucleotides in DNA.

Shotgun

Sequencing cuts the genome into short chunks that are read and reassembled by a computer.

Sialic Acids

Acidic molecules prominently found at the outermost fringes of the forest of sugar chains that cover all vertebrate cells.

Silent Mutations

No change to the phenotype.

Silver-Russell Syndrome

A complex genetic disorder affecting growth.

Single Clonal Lineage Analysis A system for labeling and following a single progenitor cell and its daughter cells as they proliferate and mature.
Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs)

Single nucleotide differences (e.g. A vs. T).

Social

Relating to society or its organization.

Social Bond

The degree to which an individual is integrated into the society, or ‘the social’. Social bond is the binding ties or social bonding to the family. Social bond also includes social bonding to the school, to the workplace and to the community.

Species

A population whose individuals can mate with one another to produce viable and fertile offspring. (debated definition)

SRGAP2

A gene on chromosome 1 that encodes for a protein that plays a role in cortical neuron development. Duplications of this gene are unique only to humans.

Stable Isotope

Isotopes that do not decay into other elements.

Starch

A plant storage molecule in the form of a polysaccharide. Starch is obtained chiefly from cereals, tubers, and potatoes. It is an important constituent of the human diet due to its digestibility, unlike many other polysaccharides, such as plant cellulose, pectins, and xylans (polyxylose).

Stone Age

A broad prehistoric period during which stone was used to make tools and weapons and is synonymous with Paleolithic. ~3.4 mya - 10 kya.

Subventricular Zone Describes both embryonic and adult neural tissues in the vertebrate nervous system.
Synaesthesia

A condition in which one type of stimulation evokes the sensation of another.

Synonymous/Non-synonymous Mutations

No change to the protein; changes to protein, respectively.

Terror Management Theory

A concept in social psychology that proposes the existence of a basic psychological conflict that results from having a desire to live but realizing death is inevitable.

Theory of Mind (ToM)

The ability to attribute mental beliefs, desires, intentions, and perspectives, etc., to oneself and to others, and to understand that others have beliefs, desires, intentions, and perspectives that are similar or different from one's own.  Related/Overlapping Terms: “Intentionality”, Attribution of Mental States”, “Inter-subjectivity”, “Mind-Reading”, “Perspective taking”, “Other-regarding Impulses”, etc.

Transcription

DNA sequence converted into RNA.

Transcription Factor

A factor (most often a protein) that influences the transcription of other coding sequences.

Transcription Factor Proteins

A protein that alters gene expression by binding directly or indirectly to DNA

Translation

mRNA converted into a protein sequence.

Transposable elements (TE)

Sequences that replicate in a genome by inserting copies of themselves at other loci (a type of “molecular parasite”).

Type 2 Diabetes (Adult On-Set)

A chronic metabolic disorder that affects the way the body processes blood sugar (glucose). It is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin and primarily occurs as a result of obesity and lack of exercise.

Typhoid fever

A bacterial infection of Salmonella typhi spread through contaminated food, water, or close contact.

Ungulates

Any typically herbivorous and hoofed mammal belonging to a diverse group that includes both perissodactyls (odd-toed ungulates including horses and rhinos) and artiodactyls (even-toed ungulates including cattle, pigs, giraffes, camels, deer, hippos). Recent discoveries indicate cetaceans evolved from early artiodactyls.

Upper Paleolithic

The third subdivision of the Paleolithic, or Stone Age, and coincides with behavorial modernity and predates the advent of agriculture. Artefacts include finely crafted stone blades and bone and antler tools, such as harpoons and needles. ~50 kya - 10 kya

Variant

DNA that differs among groups studied.

Vector

DNA molecule used to direct the replication of a cloned DNA fragment (“insert”) in a host cell.

Ventricular Zone A transient embryonic layer of tissue containing neural stem cells, principally radial glial cells, of the central nervous system of vertebrates.
Williams Syndrome

A genetic condition characterized by medical problems, including cardiovascular disease, developmental delays, and learning challenges.  These often occur side by side with striking verbal abilities, highly social personalities and an affinity for music.  1 in 10,000 people worldwide are affected and occurs equally in males and females and in every culture. Children with Williams syndrome tend to be social, friendly and endearing.

Zoobiquity

A species-spanning approach to medicine that recognizes that animals and humans get many of the same diseases, yet physicians and veterinarians rarely consult one another.

“Mating Success” Hypothesis

In relation to hunting, a hypothesis that has been documented or proposed for humans, some earlier hominins, and chimpanzees that the tactical sharing of meat develops and maintains social bonds and/or increases mating success. In humans, this success is possibly amplified by an individual’s prowess or reputation.

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