A type of neuron found in the mammalian cerebral cortex, the hippocampus, and amygdala of the brain. They are the most abundant excitatory cell type and receive both excitatory and inhibitory input.
Pertaining to quantity-related cognition (e.g., subitizing) that is shared by many species and which provides biological evolved preconditions for numerical cognition and arithmetic, but is itself not about number or arithmetic. Quantical processing seems to be about many sensorial dimensions other than number, and does not, by itself, scale up to produce number and arithmetic.
Determiners or pronouns which occur in various degrees in all natural languages and indicate the magnitude of quantities, such as the English ‘few’ or ‘many’.
Relating to, measuring, or measured by the quantity of something rather than its quality.
A primary progenitor cell capable of generating neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Radial glia are defined by their position, morphology, and genetic phenotype. These cells are involved in establishing a temporary scaffold for cortical layer development.
|Basal Radial Glia, Basal Ganglia (Brain), Outer Radial Glia|
|Reading-Frame||A way of dividing the sequence of nucleotides in a nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) molecule into a set of consecutive, non-overlapping triplets called codons.||Codon, Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)|
|Reading-Frame Shift||A genetic mutation caused by indels (insertions or deletions) of a number of nucleotides in a DNA sequence that is not divisible by three.||Codon, Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), Mutation, Reading-Frame|
A subconscious defense mechanism characterized by refusal to acknowledge (or rationalization of) unwanted or unpleasant facts, realities, thoughts, or feelings. Related Term: “Denialism.”
A molecule on the surface of host cells used by pathogens for attachment and/or invasion. Examples: angiotensin-converting-enzyme 2 (ACE2) used by SARS- CoV- 2; Sialic acid used by influenza A.
|Influenza, Pathogen, Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), Sialic acids|
A genetic variant that only has a phenotypic effect if it is present in two copies, except on most of an X-chromosome where a single copy is expressed when paired with a Y-chromosome as much of the Y does not correspond to the X and lacks X-linked genes.
|Phenotype, Variant, X-chromosome, Y-chromosome|
Exchanges between chromosomes that causes independent inheritance of alleles.
The ability to embed linguistic structures of similar types within each other.
Binding sites on chromosomes for transcription factors, which are involved in gene regulation.
|Gene, Transcription factors|
Rapid eye movement sleep, a phase of mammalian sleep characterized by random movement of eyes, low muscle tone, and vivid dreams.
Age at which an individual initiates their reproductive career, influences lifetime reproductive success.
An individual’s production of offspring per breeding event or lifetime (also includes the reproductive success of the offspring). Compare with Fitness (Darwninian).
|Reproductive Tract (Human Female)||
The external (labia, clitoris, and vaginal opening) and internal (clitoris, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries) sex organs that function in reproduction.
A population that is chronically infested with the causative agent of a disease and can act as a source of further infection.
Capacity (potential or manifested) of a system to adapt successfully to challenges that threaten system function, survival, or development; positive adaptation in the context of significant adversity exposure.
Associated with the act of respiration or breathing.
A type of transposable element, or “jumping gene,” that copies and pastes itself into different genomic locations through reverse transcription (converting RNA back into DNA).
|Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), Genomics, Ribonucleic acid (RNA), Transposable elements (TE)|
|Ribonucleic acid (RNA)||
A molecule essential in gene coding, decoding, regulation, and expression. RNA consists of sequences of the four nucleotide bases: Adenine, Uracil, Guanine, and Cytosine. Types of RNA include messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), small nuclear RNA (snRNA), and other non-coding RNAs. Some viruses including Influenza A and SARS-CoV-2 have RNA genomes.
|Gene, Genome, Influenza, Molecule, Nucleotide, Sequence, Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), Virus|
|Rising Star Cave System||
A system of caves in the Malmani dolomites of South Africa (and a part of the Cradle of Humankind World Heritage Site) where fossils of a previously unknown, extinct species of hominin, Homo naledi, were first discovered in 2013.
Higher probability of a negative (undesired) outcome.
Indicator of risk for specified negative outcome in a population.
A sequence of activities involving gestures, words, actions, or objects, and are often traditional to a community or religion. In psychology, a ritual is a repetitive behavior systematically used by a person to neutralize or prevent anxiety.
|RNA Binding Proteins (RBP)||
Proteins that bind RNA
A virus that has RNA (ribonucleic acid) as its genetic material. This nucleic acid is usually single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) but may be double-stranded RNA (dsRNA).
|Nucleic acid, Ribonucleic acid (RNA), Virus|
Misfolded proteins that cause damage, particularly resulting in neurological disorders such as Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, multiple sclerosis, and mad cow disease. The abnormal shape of these proteins can be triggered by another type of protein, called a prion.
Extinct large cats characterized by long, curved sabre-shaped canine teeth that protruded from the mouth when closed. Three genera are known from Early Pleistocene East Africa: Dinofells, Megantereon, and Homotherium.
|Sahelanthropus tchadensis (Toumaï)||
An extinct archaic species of hominin dating close to the split between the chimpanzee-human split, ~7 mya. A probable ancestor to Orrorin tugenensis and may have walked bipedally.
A genus of rod-shaped Gram-negative bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae and is divided by serovar type as either “non-typhoidal” Salmonella or “typhoidal” Salmonella. Salmonella enter the body through ingestion, often through consumption of contaminated meat, eggs, milk, or other foods that have come into contact with animal fecal matter. Its niche is in the intestines.
|Genus, Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Staining, Serovar, “Non-typhoidal” Salmonella, “Typhoidal” Salmonella|
A bacterium species of the genus Salmonella. Most cases of salmonellosis in humans is caused by S. enterica, often via infected cattle or poultry, including eggs. S. enterica can be divided in six subspecies and comprise over 2,000 serovars.
|Bacteria, Genus, Salmonellosis, Serovar, Species|
|Salmonella enterica typhi||
A serovar of Salmonella enterica whose reservoir is the human body. It is usually contracted by ingestion of food or water that is contaminated by the feces of those carrying the organism.
|Reservoir (Medicine), Salmonella enterica, Serovar|
An intestinal infection caused by Salmonella bacteria. Common symptoms include diarrhea, fever, abdominal cramps, and vomiting.
Discontinuous evolution marked by a sudden mutational change from one generation to the next, and may result in a single-step speciation event.
Members of various Khoisan-speaking indigenous hunter-gatherer groups that are the first nations of Southern Africa, and whose territories span Botswana, Namibia, Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Lesotho and South Africa. mtDNA and Y chromosome studies show that the San carry some of the most divergent (oldest) human haplogroups.
An ecosystem featuring hot, seasonally dry conditions, and vegetation consisting of open-canopy woodland and grassland.
A transitory ecotone between the tropical moist broadleaf forests of Equatorial Africa and the drier savannas and open woodlands to the north and south of the forest belt. The forest-savanna mosaic consists of drier forests, often gallery forest, interspersed with savannas and open grasslands.
A person affected with a mental disability who exhibits exceptional skill or brilliance in some limited field.
is a loose term that refers to people who have a combination of significant cognitive difficulties, often stemming from autism, and profound skills.
Organisms that search for and feed on carrion, dead plant material, or refuse.
A mental disorder characterized by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech and behavior, and other symptoms that cause social or occupational dysfunction (DSM-V, 2013).
|Seasonal affective disorder (SAD)||
A type of depression related to changes in the seasons.
A seed repository, such as the Svalbard Global Seed Vault (Svalbard, Norway), specifically for the preservation of genetic diversity.
Any repetitive portion of DNA arising by genome duplication that is at least 90% identical and >1 kbp in length.
|Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), Genome|
Allele frequency change over time caused by the different replication rate of specific alleles.
A specific bond formed between a mother and her offspring, which results in the mother exclusively caring for her own young and actively rejecting non-familiar young.
The process through which a new beneficial mutation increases in frequency within a population due to its positive effect on survival and reproduction; this process leads to a reduction in genetic variation among neighboring nucleotide sequences.
|Self-associated molecular patterns (SAMPS)||
A class of molecular patterns that signal intrinsic inhibitory receptors of immune cells to remain in or return to their baseline, non-activated state.
Conscious knowledge of one’s own character, feelings, motives, and desires.
The study of the logic and meaning of a word, phrase, sentence, or text.
The linear order of the nucleotide building blocks, which encodes individual form and function.
Reading the order of nucleotides in DNA.
A form of play that uses inquiry and innovation for complex problem-solving.
A subdivision within a species bacteria or viruses, or among immune cells of different individuals grouped together based on cell surface antigens.
|Antigen, Bacteria, Virus|
The fluid, or plasma, constituent of blood and does not contain clotting proteins.
|Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)||
A contagious and sometimes fatal respiratory illness caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-1). SARS was first reported in China in November 2002 and was rapidly spread worldwide by international travelers. Symptoms first appear flu-like with a fever, chills, muscle aches, headache and sometimes diarrhea. This can progress to a dry cough and shortness of breath. A massive global response helped to contain the spread of the disease and no new cases of the original SARS have been reported since 2004.
|Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-1)|
|Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-1)||
A strain of coronavirus that causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). It is a single-stranded RNA virus that infects the epithelial cells within the lungs and can infect humans, bats, and palm civets.
|Coronavirus, Epithelial cells, RNA virus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)|
|Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)||
A novel strain of coronavirus closely related to SARS-CoV that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which resulted in a pandemic. It is a naturally evolving virus that crossed to humans from another animal, mostly likely a bat. SARS CoV-2 is completely different from the family that includes influenza viruses though both can cause respiratory symptoms.
|Coronavirus, Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), Influenza, Novel (disease), Pandemic, Respiratory, Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV or SARS-CoV-1), Virus|
Steroid hormones, such as androgens, estrogens, and progestogens, that interact with steroid hormone receptors.
The difference in anatomical and physiological characteristics between the sexes of a species, such as body size, weight, and pigmentation.
|Sexual selection theory||
The selection of and competition for a reproductive partner. Inter-sexual mate selection of the opposite sex is contrasted with intra-sexual competition with same sex members for opposite sex mates.
|Short Interspersed Nuclear Elements (SINEs)||
A type of retrotransposon, or transposable element (“jumping genes”) that are abundant, non-autonomous, non-coding, and are 100 - 700 base pairs in length such as Alu elements.
|Alu elements, Retrotransposons, Transposable elements (TE)|
Sequencing cuts the genome into short chunks that are read and reassembled by a computer.
|Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-type lectins (Siglec)||
Cell-surface proteins that bind sialic acid. They are primarily found on immune cell surfaces. These sialic acid–binding proteins that are members of the I-type lectin family and have an outer terminal with a typically conserved amino acid sequence.
|I-type lectins, Protein, Sialic acids|
Family of acidic sugars with a nine-carbon backbone. They are found at the outermost fringes of the sugar chains (glycans) that cover all vertebrate cells. The two most common sialic acids in mammals are N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) and N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc).
|Glycans, N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc)|
An enzyme that cleaves sialic acid, an abundant sugar that coats most vertebrate cells.
|Sickle Cell Anemia||
An inherited red blood cell (RBC) disorder and one of the group of disorders of Sickle Cell Disease. In Sickle Cell Anemia, RBCs assume a sickle, or crescent shape, and degrade prematurely, causing a lack of red blood cells (anemia) to perform gas exchange. Shortness of breath, fatigue, and delayed growth and development in children are common conditions.
|Erythrocytes (red blood cells - RBCs), Sickle Cell Disease|
|Sickle Cell Disease||
A group of inherited red blood cell disorders caused by the production of hemoglobin S, a protein in red blood cells (RBCs) that causes RBCs to assume a sickle, or crescent, shape. Sickled red blood cells break down prematurely, which causes the group of disorders, including Sickle Cell Anemia (a lack of red blood cells causing shortness of breath, fatigue, and delayed growth and development in children), jaundice (yellowing of the eyes and skin due to rapid breakdown of red blood cells), clotting (sickled red blood cells, which are stiff and inflexible, get stuck in small blood vessels depriving tissues and organs of oxygen-rich blood and can lead to organ damage, especially in the lungs, kidneys, spleen, and brain), and pulmonary hypertension (high blood pressure in the blood vessels that supply the lungs). Repeated infections, and periodic episodes of pain are also common. The severity of symptoms varies from person to person.
|Clotting (blood), Hemoglobin S, Infection, Jaundice, Protein, Pulmonary Hypertension, Erythrocytes (red blood cells - RBCs), Sickle Cell Anemia|
|Sickle Cell Trait||
In humans, a condition in which a person is heterozygous for codominant alleles of the hemoglobin subunit beta (HBB) gene and produces both normal hemoglobin proteins (hgb) and abnormal hemoglobin proteins (hemoglobin S, which causes red blood cells (RBCs) to assume a sickle, or crescent, shape). In environments where malaria is endemic, humans with Sickle Cell Trait have a selective advantage as it confers some resistance to malaria. Sickle cells prevent the malaria parasite from stealing actin (a protein that maintains the pliable internal skeleton of RBCs). Actin is used by the parasite to transport another protein, adhesin (produced by the parasite), to the cell surface. Adhesin causes the infected red blood cells to adhere to each other and to vessel walls, resulting in microvascular inflammation. A person with Sickle Cell Trait does not display the severe symptoms of Sickle Cell Disease.
|Actin, Allele, Endemic, Gene, Hemoglobin, Hemoglobin S, Hemoglobin Subunit Beta Gene (HBB), Inflammation, Malaria, Parasite, Protein, Erythrocytes (red blood cells - RBCs), Sickle Cell Disease|
The extra-cellular, sialic acid binding portion of a Siglec protein fused to another protein domain and transgenically expressed in a cell line. They are used to study Siglec binding.
|Protein, Sialic acids, Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-type lectins (Siglec)|
An innate immune receptor expressed uniquely in human brain microglia cells.
No change to the phenotype.
A complex genetic disorder affecting growth.
|Singing in tongues||
An act of religious worshiping through glossolalia, a practice in which people sing or utter words or speech-like sounds, often thought by believers to be languages unknown to the speaker. Glossolalia is practiced in Pentecostal and charismatic Christianity, as well as in other religions.
|Single Clonal Lineage Analysis||A system for labeling and following a single progenitor cell and its daughter cells as they proliferate and mature.|
|Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP)||
A variation involving a single base-pair, occurring in at least 1% of the population.
|Mutation, Nucleotide, Variation (Biology)|
|Sixth Mass Extinction||
The loss of species as a result of human activity. It is also referred to as the Holocene extinction or the Anthropocene extinction.
|Anthropocene, Holocene, Species|
Relating to society or its organization.
The degree to which an individual is integrated into the society, or ‘the social’. Social bond is the binding ties or social bonding to the family. Social bond also includes social bonding to the school, to the workplace and to the community.
Established rules or norms that result in stable patterns of behavior within a community.
A process where an individual takes cues from other people in the environment, about which emotions and actions are appropriate in a certain context or situation.
The experience, expression, and management of emotions and the ability to establish positive and rewarding relationships with others. It encompasses both intra- and interpersonal processes. The core features of emotional development include the ability to identify and understand one’s own feelings, to accurately read and comprehend emotional states in others, to manage strong emotions and their expression in a constructive manner, to regulate one’s own behavior, to develop empathy for others, and to establish and maintain relationships.
A biological population whose individuals can mate with one another to produce viable and fertile offspring. This is a debated definition and the concept is problematic for extinct fossil organisms for which DNA is not available. This definition is problematic in regard to bacteria as they can exchange genetic material across widely separate taxa.
|Bacteria, Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)|
Also known as “pathogen spillover” and “spillover event,” occurs when a reservoir population with a high pathogen prevalence comes into contact with a novel host population. The pathogen is transmitted from the reservoir population and may or may not be transmitted within the host population.
|Host, Novel (disease), Pathogen, Reservoir (Medicine)|
A gene on chromosome 1 that encodes for a protein that plays a role in cortical neuron development. Duplications of this gene are unique only to humans.
Isotopes that do not decay into other elements. These isotopes, found in biological material, including fossils, and can be used to study paleo-diet and ecology.
A plant storage molecule in the form of a polysaccharide. Starch is obtained chiefly from cereals, tubers, and potatoes. It is an important constituent of the human diet due to its digestibility, unlike many other polysaccharides, such as plant cellulose, pectins, and xylans (polyxylose).
|Steller's sea cow (Hydrodamalis gigas)||
An extinct aquatic and herbivorous mammal, related to living manatees, described by Georg Wilhelm Steller in 1714 while shipwrecked on Bering Island. The species was hunted into extinction shortly after European discovery.
A biological compound manufactured by plants, animals, and fungi that functions as either important components of cell membranes or as signalling molecules.
The prehistoric period during which stone was used to make tools and weapons and is synonymous with the paleolithic. ~3.4 mya - 10 kya. In African archaeology, stone age chronology is divided into Early Stone Age (ESA): ~2.6 mya to ~300 kya; Middle Stone Age (MSA): ~300 kya to ~50 kya; and Later Stone Age (LSA): ~ 50 kya to ~39 kya.
The social and cultural activity of sharing stories for entertainment, education, or instilling morals and values.
Any type of infection caused by the group of Streptococcus bacteria.
A genus of Gram-positive bacteria with over 50 recognized species. Streptococcus species are responsible for “strep” throat, pink eye, meningitis, bacterial pneumonia, endocarditis, erysipelas, and necrotizing fasciitis (the “flesh- eating” bacterial infections). However, many streptococcal species are not pathogenic and form part of the commensal human microbiota of the mouth, skin, intestine, and upper respiratory tract. Streptococci are also a necessary ingredient in producing Emmentaler (“Swiss”) cheese.
|Bacteria, Genus, Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Staining, Meningitis, Microbiome, Pathogenicity, Species|
Effects of disturbances in an individual or system that disrupt adaptive functions; response of a dynamic system to challenges or demands.
Events or experiences that typically result in stress on a system.
The distance between two subsequent footfalls.
The uniquely-human form of bipedal locomotion, which involves the full extension of the hip and knee joints in the support leg during the stance phase, movement of the hip joint over and in front of the knee and ankle joints in the support leg, and a longer stride length compared to ape bipedalism.
The structural framework of an organ or tissue.