The dramatic reduction in population size, which often results in a loss of genetic diversity.
|Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Neuroimaging||
A functional imaging technique used to observe metabolic process in the body.
|Post-partum amenorrhea (PA)||
Temporary cessation of menstrual cycles after giving birth.
Alter mature protein.
|Posterior Parietal Cortex||
The portion of parietal neocortex that plays an important role in planned movements, spatial reasoning, and attention.
The period of time after a woman has ceased ovulating. This life-stage is unique to humans and not expressed in non-human primates.
Depression that occurs after pregnancy. 15% of women experience depression after childbirth, making this the most common complication of childbirth.
The product of work and speed (velocity).
A genetic disorder usually caused by deletion of part of chromosome 15 inherited from the father, causing imbalance in sex-specific imprinting. Results in behavioral problems, intellectual disability, and short stature.
|Pre-frontal cortex (brain)||
The cerebral cortex that covers the front part of the frontal lobe and is linked to complex cognitive behavior, personality, long and short-term memory, decision making, speech, language, and a person’s will to live.
|Cerebral Cortex (Brain), Frontal lobe (brain)|
A pregnancy associated disorder characterized by high blood pressure and large amounts of protein in urine, typically accelerating during the third trimester.
|Preprint (Academic Publishing)||
A version of a scholarly or scientific paper that has not yet been formally peer reviewed. It is freely available before it is published as a finished product in a peer-reviewed scholarly or scientific journal, which often include costly paywalls. It is generally not good practice for news outlets to report on preprinted results because they have not been peer-reviewed.
|Peer Review (Academic Publishing)|
The transport of vesicles containing neurotransmitters on the presynaptic side prior to release of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft (chemical synapse).
|Primary Somatosensory Cortex||
A region of the Neocortex that controls tactile representation from the parts of the body.
A group of mammals that include humans, apes, monkeys, and prosimians.
The scientific discipline involving the study of living and extinct primates (monkeys and apes), especially their evolution and behavior. Modern primatology consists of Western and Japanese traditions that developed simultaneously but independently in the 1950s.
A type of abnormal, pathogenic protein that can cause other, normal, proteins to similarly misfold. Prions are involved in many neurodegenerative diseases, such as Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), also known as “mad cow disease.”
A person, especially a young one, endowed with exceptional qualities or abilities.
The open-ended ability to combine meaningful linguistic units into new higher order units of meaning: for example, roots, prefixes (e.g. anti-), and suffixes (e.g. -ish) into words, and words (or signs) into phrases and sentences (Kluender, 2020).
A steroid and sex hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis of invertebrates and mammals.
|Embryogenesis, Sex hormone, Steroid|
Unicellular organisms that lack a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle. This definition is now debated as some “prokaryotes,” such as archea (“extremophiles”), are more closely related to eukaryotes.
Unicellular organisms that lack a membrane- bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle. (see Eukaryotes)
The part of the menstrual cycle phase in which the endometrium, the lining of the uterus, expands.
Predictor of positive outcome under most conditions, whether risk is low or high.
Region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene.
A short-acting medication, believed to work at least partly via GABA receptors, that is used for the starting and maintenance of general anesthesia, sedation for mechanically ventilated adults, and procedural sedation. Effects include decreased level of consciousness and a lack of memory for events.
|GABA receptors, General anesthesia|
The awareness of the position and movement of the body.
A group of primates that includes all living and extinct galagos, lemurs, lorises, and tarsiers. They are considered to have characteristics that are more “primitive” (ancestral) than those of monkeys, apes, and humans.
Moderator of risk or adversity associated with better outcomes particularly when risk or adversity is high.
One of the four classes of major biomolecules. Proteins are molecules encoded by DNA sequences and composed of amino acids connected by peptide bonds. These range in size from a few amino acids (short peptides) to large molecules (long polypeptides) comprised of thousands of amino acids.
|Amino acids, DNA sequence, Molecule|
|Protein coding sequence||
A section of DNA or RNA that codes for protein.
|Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), Protein, Ribonucleic acid (RNA)|
A section of DNA or RNA that codes for protein.
|Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), Protein, Ribonucleic acid (RNA)|
An informal term for unicellular (single celled) eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic.
A ribosomal subunit that is activated by intracellular cascades and therefore used as a marker for neuron activity. This subunit is physically attached to RNA molecules that are being translated into protein and therefore can also provide information about which genes are expressed in active neurons.
A gene that has lost its function. Some pseudogenes may be translated into a protein, but typically the protein is inactive.
An approach to machine intelligence that also incorporates other features of human intelligence such as causal reasoning, intuitive psychology, and physics.
|Psychological Evolutionary Barrier||
The mental equivalent of a physiological evolutionary barrier (such as the difficulty of evolving from an aquatic existence to living on land). A hypothetical concept.
The study of mental disorders.
A broad class of drugs that stimulate sympathetic nerves and whose effects can include increased movement, arousal, vigilance, anorexia, vigor, wakefulness, and attention. Some psychostimulants, especially at high doses and with a rapid route of administration, can produce euphoria, a sense of power and confidence, and addiction. Cocaine is a psychostimulant.
High blood pressure in the blood vessels that supply the lungs. Also affects the right side of the heart.
An evolutionary model in which pronounced change takes place in short bursts followed by periods of evolutionary continuity. Compare with Continuity.
|Continuity (aka Phyletic Gradualism)|
The term used to refer to an infant rodent (rat or mouse).
An infant transport behavior in which the mother uses her mouth to gently carry a pup by the back of the neck. Mothers do this if pups crawl out of the nest or if she has to move her pups to a new nest location. In the laboratory, this behavior can be used as an index of maternal motivation because it is a proactive, voluntary response to an infant.
A type of neuron found in the mammalian cerebral cortex, the hippocampus, and amygdala of the brain. They are the most abundant excitatory cell type and receive both excitatory and inhibitory input.
Pertaining to quantity-related cognition (e.g., subitizing) that is shared by many species and which provides biological evolved preconditions for numerical cognition and arithmetic, but is itself not about number or arithmetic. Quantical processing seems to be about many sensorial dimensions other than number, and does not, by itself, scale up to produce number and arithmetic.
Determiners or pronouns which occur in various degrees in all natural languages and indicate the magnitude of quantities, such as the English ‘few’ or ‘many’.
Relating to, measuring, or measured by the quantity of something rather than its quality.
A primary progenitor cell capable of generating neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Radial glia are defined by their position, morphology, and genetic phenotype. These cells are involved in establishing a temporary scaffold for cortical layer development.
|Basal Radial Glia, Basal Ganglia (Brain), Outer Radial Glia|
|Reading-Frame||A way of dividing the sequence of nucleotides in a nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) molecule into a set of consecutive, non-overlapping triplets called codons.||Codon, Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)|
|Reading-Frame Shift||A genetic mutation caused by indels (insertions or deletions) of a number of nucleotides in a DNA sequence that is not divisible by three.||Codon, Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), Mutation, Reading-Frame|
A subconscious defense mechanism characterized by refusal to acknowledge (or rationalization of) unwanted or unpleasant facts, realities, thoughts, or feelings. Related Term: “Denialism.”
A molecule on the surface of host cells used by pathogens for attachment and/or invasion. Examples: angiotensin-converting-enzyme 2 (ACE2) used by SARS- CoV- 2; Sialic acid used by influenza A.
|Influenza, Pathogen, Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), Sialic acids|
A genetic variant that only has a phenotypic effect if it is present in two copies, except on most of an X-chromosome where a single copy is expressed when paired with a Y-chromosome as much of the Y does not correspond to the X and lacks X-linked genes.
|Phenotype, Variant, X-chromosome, Y-chromosome|
A mating system where individuals from different groups repeatedly from pair bonds across groups, track these relationships (with the help of personal names and kinship terms), and exchange goods and services.
Exchanges between chromosomes that causes independent inheritance of alleles.
The ability to embed linguistic structures of similar types within each other.
Binding sites on chromosomes for transcription factors, which are involved in gene regulation.
|Gene, Transcription factors|
Gaining knowledge of one’s own being (ontology) by relating to a being that is – or is held to be – categorically “Other”, and perceiving oneself from its perspective. That Other is usually an animal onto whom personhood is projected through this sort of inter-subjective encounter. Another term for this notion is New Animism.
Rapid eye movement sleep, a phase of mammalian sleep characterized by random movement of eyes, low muscle tone, and vivid dreams.
Age at which an individual initiates their reproductive career, influences lifetime reproductive success.
An individual’s production of offspring per breeding event or lifetime (also includes the reproductive success of the offspring). Compare with Fitness (Darwninian).
|Reproductive Tract (Human Female)||
The external (labia, clitoris, and vaginal opening) and internal (clitoris, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries) sex organs that function in reproduction.
A population that is chronically infested with the causative agent of a disease and can act as a source of further infection.
Capacity (potential or manifested) of a system to adapt successfully to challenges that threaten system function, survival, or development; positive adaptation in the context of significant adversity exposure.
Associated with the act of respiration or breathing.
A type of transposable element, or “jumping gene,” that copies and pastes itself into different genomic locations through reverse transcription (converting RNA back into DNA).
|Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), Genomics, Ribonucleic acid (RNA), Transposable elements (TE)|
|Ribonucleic acid (RNA)||
A molecule essential in gene coding, decoding, regulation, and expression. RNA consists of sequences of the four nucleotide bases: Adenine, Uracil, Guanine, and Cytosine. Types of RNA include messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), small nuclear RNA (snRNA), and other non-coding RNAs. Some viruses including Influenza A and SARS-CoV-2 have RNA genomes.
|Gene, Genome, Influenza, Molecule, Nucleotide, Sequence, Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), Virus|
|Rising Star Cave System||
A system of caves in the Malmani dolomites of South Africa (and a part of the Cradle of Humankind World Heritage Site) where fossils of a previously unknown, extinct species of hominin, Homo naledi, were first discovered in 2013.
Higher probability of a negative (undesired) outcome.
Indicator of risk for specified negative outcome in a population.
A sequence of activities involving gestures, words, actions, or objects, and are often traditional to a community or religion. In psychology, a ritual is a repetitive behavior systematically used by a person to neutralize or prevent anxiety.
|RNA Binding Proteins (RBP)||
Proteins that bind RNA
A virus that has RNA (ribonucleic acid) as its genetic material. This nucleic acid is usually single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) but may be double-stranded RNA (dsRNA).
|Nucleic acid, Ribonucleic acid (RNA), Virus|
Misfolded proteins that cause damage, particularly resulting in neurological disorders such as Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s, multiple sclerosis, and mad cow disease. The abnormal shape of these proteins can be triggered by another type of protein, called a prion.
Extinct large cats characterized by long, curved sabre-shaped canine teeth that protruded from the mouth when closed. Three genera are known from Early Pleistocene East Africa: Dinofells, Megantereon, and Homotherium.
|Sahelanthropus tchadensis (Toumaï)||
An extinct archaic species of hominin dating close to the split between the chimpanzee-human split, ~7 mya. A probable ancestor to Orrorin tugenensis and may have walked bipedally.
A genus of rod-shaped Gram-negative bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae and is divided by serovar type as either “non-typhoidal” Salmonella or “typhoidal” Salmonella. Salmonella enter the body through ingestion, often through consumption of contaminated meat, eggs, milk, or other foods that have come into contact with animal fecal matter. Its niche is in the intestines.
|Genus, Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Staining, Serovar, “Non-typhoidal” Salmonella, “Typhoidal” Salmonella|
A bacterium species of the genus Salmonella. Most cases of salmonellosis in humans is caused by S. enterica, often via infected cattle or poultry, including eggs. S. enterica can be divided in six subspecies and comprise over 2,000 serovars.
|Bacteria, Genus, Salmonellosis, Serovar, Species|
|Salmonella enterica typhi||
A serovar of Salmonella enterica whose reservoir is the human body. It is usually contracted by ingestion of food or water that is contaminated by the feces of those carrying the organism.
|Reservoir (Medicine), Salmonella enterica, Serovar|
An intestinal infection caused by Salmonella bacteria. Common symptoms include diarrhea, fever, abdominal cramps, and vomiting.
Discontinuous evolution marked by a sudden mutational change from one generation to the next, and may result in a single-step speciation event.
Members of various Khoisan-speaking indigenous hunter-gatherer and former hunter-gatherer groups that are the first nations of Southern Africa, and whose territories span Botswana, Namibia, Angola, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Lesotho and South Africa. mtDNA and Y chromosome studies show that the San carry some of the most divergent (oldest) human haplogroups.
|Khoisan (or Khoe-Sān)|
An ecosystem featuring hot, seasonally dry conditions, and vegetation consisting of open-canopy woodland and grassland.
A transitory ecotone between the tropical moist broadleaf forests of Equatorial Africa and the drier savannas and open woodlands to the north and south of the forest belt. The forest-savanna mosaic consists of drier forests, often gallery forest, interspersed with savannas and open grasslands.
A person affected with a mental disability who exhibits exceptional skill or brilliance in some limited field.
is a loose term that refers to people who have a combination of significant cognitive difficulties, often stemming from autism, and profound skills.
Organisms that search for and feed on carrion, dead plant material, or refuse.
A mental disorder characterized by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech and behavior, and other symptoms that cause social or occupational dysfunction (DSM-V, 2013).
|Seasonal affective disorder (SAD)||
A type of depression related to changes in the seasons.
Synonymous with luteal phase.
A seed repository, such as the Svalbard Global Seed Vault (Svalbard, Norway), specifically for the preservation of genetic diversity.
Any repetitive portion of DNA arising by genome duplication that is at least 90% identical and >1 kbp in length.
|Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), Genome|
Allele frequency change over time caused by the different replication rate of specific alleles.
A specific bond formed between a mother and her offspring, which results in the mother exclusively caring for her own young and actively rejecting non-familiar young.
The process through which a new beneficial mutation increases in frequency within a population due to its positive effect on survival and reproduction; this process leads to a reduction in genetic variation among neighboring nucleotide sequences.
|Self-associated molecular patterns (SAMPS)||
A class of molecular patterns that signal intrinsic inhibitory receptors of immune cells to remain in or return to their baseline, non-activated state.
Conscious knowledge of one’s own character, feelings, motives, and desires.
The study of the logic and meaning of a word, phrase, sentence, or text.
The linear order of the nucleotide building blocks, which encodes individual form and function.
Reading the order of nucleotides in DNA.